adversary system of justice

The American adversary system of justice is the legal process by which two or more advocates represent their parties’ positions before an impartial arbiter, usually a jury or judge, who attempt to determine the truth of the case. Justice is said to be done when the most effective adversary is able to convince the arbiter that one perspective of the case is correct. “The right to be heard would be of little avail if it did not comprehend the right to be heard by counsel. Even the intelligent and educated layman lacks both the skill and knowledge adequately to prepare his defense, even though he have a perfect one. He requires the guiding hand of counsel at every step in the proceedings against him.” (Powell v. Alabama (1932) 287 U. S. 45, 68-69 (ellipses omitted).)

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